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冲压模具在制作时容易出现的问题

来源:    发布时间:2019-04-02 13:33:36    点击:

  冲压是大批量零件成型生产实用工艺之一。在冲压生产过程中,模具出现的问题比较多,它是整个冲压生产要素中比较重要的因素。直接影响到生产效率和成本。影响到产品的交货周期。模具问题主要集中在模具损坏、产品质量缺陷和模具的刃磨方面,它们长期困扰着行业生产。只有正确处理这几个关键点。冲压生产才能够顺利进行
  Stamping is one of the practical processes for mass parts forming. In the process of stamping production, the problem of die is the most, which is the most important factor in the whole stamping production factor. It directly affects the production efficiency and cost. Affects the product delivery cycle.  Die problems mainly focus on die damage, product quality defects and die grinding, which have long plagued industry production. Only by correctly handling these key points. Stamping production can proceed smoothly
  1 模具故障
  1 Die Failure
  模具故障是冲压生产中比较容易出现的问题,常常造成停产,影响产品生产周期。因此,必须尽快找到模具故障原因,合理维修。
  Die failure is the most common problem in stamping production, which often causes shutdown and affects product production cycle. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the cause of die failure as soon as possible and maintain it reasonably.
  模具损坏是指模具开裂、折断、涨开等,处理模具损坏问题,必须从模具的设计、制造工艺和模具使用方面寻找原因。
  Die damage refers to the cracking, breaking and opening of the die. In order to deal with the problem of die damage, it is necessary to find out the reasons from the design, manufacturing process and use of the die.
  首先要审核模具的制造材料是否合适,相对应的热处埋工艺是否合理。通常,模具材料的热处理工艺对其影响很大。如果模具的淬火温度过高,淬火方法和时间不合理,以及回火次数和温度、肘间选择不当,都会导致模具进入冲压生产后损坏。落料孔尺寸或深度设计不够,容易使槽孔阻塞,造成落料板损坏。弹簧力设计太小或等高套不等高,会使弹簧断裂、落料板倾斜.造成重叠冲打,损坏零件。冲头固定不当或螺丝强度不够.会导致冲头掉落或折断。
  First of all, it is necessary to check whether the manufacturing material of the die is suitable and whether the corresponding burying process of hot spot is reasonable. Usually, the heat treatment process of die material has a great influence on it. If the quenching temperature of the die is too high, the quenching method and time are unreasonable, and the tempering times and temperature, elbow selection are not appropriate, the die will be damaged after entering the stamping production. The size or depth of blanking hole is not enough to block the groove hole and cause the damage of blanking plate.  The spring force design is too small or the equal height sleeve is unequal, which will cause the spring to break and the blanking plate to tilt. It will cause overlapping punching and damage parts. If the punch is not fixed properly or the screw is not strong enough, it will cause the punch to fall off or break.
  2 制件质量缺陷
  2. Quality Defects of Parts
  比较常见的制件质量缺陷是产品尺寸超差。只有少数产品存在表面质量问题。
  The most common part quality defect is product size oversize. Only a few products have surface quality problems.
  尺寸超差是冲压制件的严重缺陷。对此,首先要检查、核对模具的设计,排除设计和制造的原因。如果超差尺寸和材料厚度有关,应检测冲压材料的厚度和材质、硬度。
  Dimension overshoot is a serious defect of stamping parts. In this regard, first of all, the design of the die should be checked and checked, and the reasons for the design and manufacture should be excluded. If the excess size is related to the thickness of the material, the thickness, material quality and hardness of the stamping material should be tested.
  冲压生产过程中引起尺寸超差,主要是模具的磨损、定位导向不良和制件产生变形。模具的刃口磨耗.会造成毛刺太大或切外形尺寸变大、冲孔变小、平面度超差,应该刃磨或更换模具。模具人杂志微信,值得观注!定位导向不良包括没有导向、导销或其他定位装置没有起作用,送料机没有放松,定位块磨损使送距过长,导料板长度不对或导料间隙太大等。制件在生产中变形,主要有撞击变形,例如制品的吹出气压太强或重力落下撞击太大变形:出料时受挤压或括伤变形,应及时清理出料位置或加大出料空间:顶出不当变形。例如顶料销配制不当、弹簧力不适当或顶出过长,应调整弹力或改变位置或销数量;下料变形。部份弯曲件不能容许料重叠,须每次落下,当出现碟形应变时可采用压力垫消除;冲剪变形,主要是材料扭曲不平。尺寸增大或中心不对称;浮屑挤压变形,是由于废料上浮或细屑留在模面上或异物等挤压变形。
  Over-tolerance in stamping process is mainly caused by wear of die, poor orientation and deformation of parts. The abrasion of the edge of the die will result in too large burr or bigger size of the cut profile, smaller punch hole, and flatness exceeding tolerance. The die should be sharpened or replaced. Mold Man Magazine Wechat Professional, worthy of attention! Poor orientation includes no orientation, no guide pin or other positioning device, no loosening of feeder, excessive distance due to wear of positioning block, incorrect length of guide plate or excessive gap between guides, etc.  Deformation of parts in production mainly includes impact deformation, for example, the blow-out pressure of products is too strong or the impact of gravity falls too large deformation: when the material is discharged by extrusion or bracket deformation, the position of discharging material should be cleared in time or the space of discharging material should be enlarged: the improper deformation of ejection. For example, if the ejector pin is not properly prepared, the spring force is inappropriate or the ejector is too long, the elasticity should be adjusted or the position or number of pins should be changed; the blanking deformation should be achieved. Partial bending parts can not allow overlapping of materials, they must be dropped every time. Pressure cushion can be used to eliminate the dish strain; punching and shearing deformation, mainly the material distortion is uneven. Dimension enlargement or center asymmetry; floating chip extrusion deformation is caused by scrap floating or fine chip remaining on the die surface or foreign body extrusion deformation.
  表面质量不合格
  Surface quality is not up to standard
  冲压制件的表面质量问题,主要是毛刺过大。造成制件毛刺过大的原因,首先是模具刃口的磨损,应重新研磨模具(下述),确保刃口锋利。 3 模具的刃磨
  The surface quality problems of stamping parts are mainly excessive burrs. The reason for the excessive burr is the wear of the die edge. The die should be re-grinded (as follows) to ensure that the edge is sharp. 3. Grinding of Dies
  冲压生产中对模具进行合理的刃磨。可以有效地提高冲模的寿命,节省模具费用,大幅度降低产品成本。
  In stamping production, the die should be grinded reasonably. It can effectively improve the life of the die, save the cost of the die and greatly reduce the cost of the product.
                           山东模具
  当冲模刃口磨损到一定程度时,原本锋利的刃口变钝了,会造成冲裁件毛刺过大,尺寸与形位精度下降。因此,模具必须进行刃磨,以恢复其锋利的冲裁刃口。减小冲裁毛刺和尺寸与形位偏差,改善成形件表面质量。如果不及时刃磨模具,会因为拖延刃磨时间,使得已经磨钝的刃口遭受坚硬、过大、过厚毛刺的剧烈摩擦,形成模具恶性循环的过度磨损,导致要以几倍的刃磨量才能够使刃口恢复锋利,大大缩短模具的寿命。当制件的毛刺即将超出允许毛刺高度时,应立即停止生产,对模具进行刃磨。
  When the cutting edge of the die is worn to a certain extent, the original sharp edge becomes blunt, which will cause the burr of the blanking part to be too large and the precision of size and shape and position to be reduced.  Therefore, the die must be grinded to restore its sharp cutting edge. Reduce the punching burr and the deviation between size and shape, improve the surface quality of the formed parts. If the die is not grinded in time, the blunt edge will suffer severe friction of hard, large and thick burrs because of delaying the grinding time, resulting in excessive wear and tear of the vicious circle of the die, which will lead to several times of the grinding amount to restore the sharp edge and greatly shorten the life of the die. When the burr of the part is about to exceed the allowable burr height, the production should be stopped immediately and the die should be sharpened.
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