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模具的发展对机床提出了哪些要求

来源:    发布时间:2019-04-04 11:04:05    点击:

  随着消费类产品更新换代速度的加快,模具技术也在不断的发展,对模具的生产效率和制造品质提出了越来越高的要求,因此电火花加工模具的低生产效率和品质不稳定等缺点逐渐暴露出来。
  With the acceleration of renewal and replacement of consumer products, die technology is also constantly developing, which puts forward higher and higher requirements for the production efficiency and manufacturing quality of dies. Therefore, the shortcomings of low production efficiency and unstable quality of EDM dies are gradually exposed.
  为实现模具型腔及其相关部位的高速加工,机床需要具备以下特点:
  In order to realize high-speed machining of die cavity and its related parts, machine tools need to have the following characteristics:
  1.由于模具正在向大型化方向发展,几吨到几十吨的模具非常普遍,因此要求机床工作台面能承受大重量,这就要求设备必须具有大承重和高刚性的特性,还 必须有足够大的台面尺寸和工作行程与之相适应。另外,模具材料的强度和硬度都很高,加上常常采用伸长量较大的小直径端铣刀加工模具型腔,因此加工过程容易 发生颤振。为了确保零件的加工精度和表面质量,用于模具制造的高速机床必须有很高的动、静刚度,以提高机床的定位精度、跟踪精度和抗振能力。
  1. As the die is developing towards large-scale, several to dozens of tons of dies are very common, so it is required that the machine tool working table can bear large weight, which requires that the equipment must have the characteristics of large load-bearing and high rigidity, and must have a large enough table size and work stroke to adapt to it. In addition, the strength and hardness of die materials are very high, and small diameter end milling cutters with large elongation are often used to process die cavity, so the processing process is prone to flutter. In order to ensure the processing accuracy and surface quality of parts, high-speed machine tools used in die manufacturing must have high dynamic and static stiffness to improve the positioning accuracy, tracking accuracy and anti-vibration ability of machine tools.
  2.高转速和大功率高速加工是发展方向,高速铣削在模具加工中已显示了极大地优越性。为了适应模具型腔曲面的加工,刀具的半径应小于型腔曲面比较小圆周 半径,以免加工过程中刀具与工件发生“干涉”。由于刀具直径小,因此要求主轴转速非常高,国外高速加工机床主轴转速已达到4万~10万r/min,快速进 给速度可达3万~6万min。型腔和模具零件其他部件粗、精加工常常在工件一次装夹中完成,故主轴功率要大,中等尺寸模具铣床和加工中心的主轴功率常为 10~40kW,有的甚至更高。
  2. High-speed and high-power high-speed machining is the direction of development. High-speed milling has shown great advantages in die processing. In order to adapt to the processing of die cavity surface, the radius of the tool should be less than the minimum circumference radius of the cavity surface, so as to avoid interference between the tool and the workpiece in the process of machining. Because of the small tool diameter, the spindle speed is required to be very high. The spindle speed of foreign high-speed machine tools has reached 40,000-100,000 r/min, and the fast feed speed can reach 30,000-60,000 min. Rough and finish machining of cavity and other parts of die parts is often completed in one clamp, so the spindle power is larger. The spindle power of medium size die milling machine and processing center is usually 10 ~ 40 kW, some even higher.
  3.能多轴联动及良好的深孔腔综合切削能力模具型腔多为复杂的空间六曲面及沟槽所构成,且许多模具具有深孔腔。为了达到对3D曲面的高精度、高速度和 高稳定性加工,机床需要多轴联动,且具有良好的深孔腔综合切削能力。可以采用五轴联动加工中心,除了三个坐标的直线运动外,还有两个旋转坐标的进给运动。 铣头或工作台可以多轴联动进行连续回转进给,从而适用于加工具有复杂型腔曲面的模具零件。
  3. The die cavity with multi-axis linkage and good comprehensive cutting ability of deep-hole cavity is mostly composed of complex space hexagonal surface and groove, and many of the dies have deep-hole cavity. In order to achieve high accuracy, high speed and high stability of 3D surface processing, the machine tool needs multi-axis linkage, and has good comprehensive cutting ability of deep hole cavity. Five-axis linkage machining center can be used. In addition to the linear motion of three coordinates, there are two rotating coordinates of the feed motion. The milling head or worktable can be continuously rotated by multi-axis linkage, so it is suitable for processing die parts with complex cavity surface.
                    山东模具
  可以说,复合加工是模具加工的发展方向之一。虽然加工中心已能将许多机加工工序复合在一台机床上实现,但这仍不能完全适应模具加工,将机械加工与电、化学、超声波等不同原理加工方法进行复合,兼备两种以上工艺特点的复合加工在今后的模具制造中将有广阔的前景。
  It can be said that compound processing is one of the development directions of die processing. Although the machining center has been able to integrate many machining processes into one machine tool, it still can not fully adapt to die processing. It will have broad prospects in future die manufacturing by combining mechanical processing with different principles such as electrochemical, ultrasonic and other processing methods.
 
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