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汽车冲压模具的发展前景怎么样

来源:    发布时间:2019-04-22 13:06:53    点击:

  汽车冲压模具是汽车生产的重要工艺装备,其设计和制造时间约占汽车开发周期的2/3,是汽车换型的主要制约因素之一。汽车冲压模具具有尺寸大、工作型面复杂、技术标准高等特点,属于技术密集型产品。过去汽车冲压模具普遍采用单工序模和复合模的结构设计,而随着技术进步和装备水平的提高,能够降低成本、提高生产效率的多工位模、级进模逐渐应用于汽车冲压模具的设计制造中,成为汽车冲压模具制造技术的发展方向。
  The automobile stamping die is an important process equipment in automobile production. Its design and manufacturing time accounts for about two-thirds of the automobile development cycle, and it is one of the main constraints of automobile replacement. The automobile stamping die has the characteristics of large size, complex working surface and high technical standards. It belongs to technology-intensive products. In the past, the structure design of single-process die and compound die was widely used in automobile stamping die. With the improvement of technology and equipment level, multi-position die and progressive die which can reduce cost and improve production efficiency were gradually applied in the design and manufacture of automobile stamping die, and became the development direction of automobile stamping die manufacturing technology.
  冲压模具是对原材料进行加工,赋予原材料以完整构型和精确尺寸的加工工具,主要用于、大批量生产工业产品中的有关零部件。随着现代化工业的发展,模具的应用越来越广泛,在汽车、电子、仪器仪表、家电、航空航天、建材、电机和通讯器材等产品中,约60%-80%的零部件都要依靠模具加工成型,因此被称为“工业之母”。
  Stamping die is a tool for processing raw materials, which gives them complete configuration and precise size. It is mainly used for efficient and mass production of related parts and components in industrial products. With the development of modern industry, the application of mould is more and more extensive. In automobile, electronics, instruments, household appliances, aerospace, building materials, motors and communication equipment, about 60% to 80% of parts and components rely on mould processing and forming, so they are called "the mother of industry".
  汽车冲压模具行业的发展与下游汽车工业的发展息息相关,下游汽车行业的稳步快速发展将极大推动汽车冲压模具行业的发展。汽车行业的稳步快速发展为汽车冲压模具行业发展创造了良好的环境在汽车的生产过程中90%以上的零部件需要依靠模具成形,制造一辆普通轿车大约需要1,000至1,500套冲压模具。下游汽车行业的稳步快速发展为汽车冲压模具行业发展创造了良好的环境。
  The development of automobile stamping die industry is closely related to the development of downstream automobile industry. The steady and rapid development of downstream automobile industry will greatly promote the development of automobile stamping die industry. Steady and rapid development of automotive industry has created a good environment for the development of automotive stamping die industry. More than 90% of automotive parts need to be formed by die in the production process. It takes about 1,000 to 1,500 sets of stamping dies to make an ordinary car. The steady and rapid development of downstream automobile industry has created a good environment for the development of automobile stamping die industry.
  近几年随着人们生活水平的提高,汽车需求量也越来越大,各汽车厂的竞争日趋激烈,不断投入具备成本竞争力的新车型抢占市场,与此同时,用于生产汽车精密冲压件所 需的铁矿石与焦炭等自然资源却日趋紧张。提高材料利用率,不仅能降低汽车的精密冲压件制造成本,提高汽车品牌的竞争力,而且也符合节能降耗的环保理念。
  In recent years, with the improvement of people's living standards, the demand for automobiles is also growing. The competition among automobile factories is becoming increasingly fierce. New models with cost competitiveness are continuously invested to seize the market. At the same time, the natural resources such as iron ore and coke used to produce precision stamping parts for automobiles are becoming increasingly tense. Improving the material utilization ratio can not only reduce the manufacturing cost of automobile precision stamping parts and improve the competitiveness of automobile brands, but also conform to the environmental protection concept of energy saving and consumption reduction.
  工艺优化:
  Process optimization:
  1、模具设计优化,一模多件
  1, mold design optimization, multiple models
  在一套模具上同时生产多个精密冲压件零件时,利用大精密冲压件零件孔洞处的废料生产一个或多个小精密冲压件零件,达到提高材料利用率的效果。
  When several precision stamping parts are produced simultaneously on a set of dies, one or more small precision stamping parts are produced by using the scrap at the hole of large precision stamping parts, so as to improve the utilization ratio of materials.
  B5车型机罩内板和T7门内板的模具,分别利用机罩内板和门内板精密冲压件零件孔洞处废料,冲压出机罩加强板精密冲压件零件和门锁加强板,避免了单独使用材料生产机罩加强板及门锁加强板。
  The die for the inner panel of B5 type hood and the inner panel of T7 door respectively uses the scrap at the hole of the precise stamping parts of the inner panel of hood and the inner panel of door to stamp out the precise stamping parts of the cover reinforcement plate and the door lock reinforcement plate, avoiding the production of the cover reinforcement plate and the door lock reinforcement plate by using the material alone.
  2、模具设计优化,板坯组合
  2. Die design optimization and slab combination
  模具设计时,将左右对称精密冲压件精密冲压件零件设计在一起冲压成形,通过工艺优化,将两张板料冲压出两个精密冲压件零件改为一张板料冲压出两个精密冲压件零件,减少工艺补充面积,提高材料利用率。
  In die design, precision stamping parts of left and right symmetrical precision stamping parts are designed to be stamped together. Through process optimization, two precision stamping parts of sheet metal are changed into two precision stamping parts of sheet metal, which reduces the supplementary area of process and improves the utilization ratio of materials.
                               山东模具
  为MX3车型的左右后门外板精密精密冲压件零件模具设计与M44车型左右后门外板模具设计对比。MX3车型的左右后门外板一张板料冲压一个精密冲压件零件,精密冲压件零件的四个方向都需要工艺补充面;而M44车型左右后门外板为一张板料冲压出两个精密冲压件零件,相当于减少一个工艺补充面。通过对比,M44车型后门外板材料利用率比MX3后门外板材料利用率提高4.16%。
  For MX3 model of left and right rear door exterior panel precision stamping parts die design and M44 model of left and right rear door exterior panel die design comparison. MX3's left and right rear door outer panel stamps a precise stamping part with one sheet metal, and the four directions of the precise stamping parts need process supplementary surface; while M44's left and right rear door outer panel stamps two precise stamping parts with one sheet metal, which is equivalent to reducing one process supplementary surface. By comparison, the material utilization ratio of M44 rear door outer panel is 4.16% higher than that of MX3 rear door outer panel.
  原材料
  Raw material
  对精密冲压件而言,同一精密冲压件零件的材料利用率反映出工艺水平和技术水平的高低,本文结合冲压现场实际应用,从工艺优化、材料尺寸优化、废料再利用、卷料重量提高等方面介绍了提高汽车精密冲压件材料利用率的方法,通过上述方法的实际应用,提高了工艺、技术水平,为后续项目的工艺设计提供了参考依据。
  For precision stamping parts, the material utilization ratio of the same precision stamping parts reflects the technological level and technical level. Combining with the practical application of stamping field, this paper introduces the methods to improve the material utilization ratio of automobile precision stamping parts from the aspects of process optimization, material size optimization, waste reuse and coil weight improvement. Through the practical application of the above methods, the technology is improved. The technical level provides a reference for the process design of follow-up projects.
  提高材料利用率的方法很多,更多的方法需要通过实践验证,例如冲压覆盖件下料时,将现有的直线刀或圆弧刀改为波浪刀,通过改变板坯的形状,缩短板坯长度,从而提高材料利用率,此方法需要核算模具的投资、维修成本与提高材料利用率后的收益关系。总之,提高材料利用率是为了降低整车的完全成本,在做提高材料利用率方案时需要结合车型产量,考虑投资成本与收益的关系。
  There are many ways to improve the material utilization rate. More methods need to be verified by practice. For example, when blanking stamping panels, the existing linear or circular knife should be changed into wave knife. By changing the shape of the slab and shortening the length of the slab, the material utilization rate can be improved. This method needs to calculate the relationship between the investment of the die, the cost of maintenance and the profit after improving the material utilization rate. In a word, the purpose of improving material utilization rate is to reduce the total cost of the whole vehicle. When making the plan of improving material utilization rate, we need to consider the relationship between investment cost and income, taking into account the output of the vehicle.
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