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山东模具的总体水平仍然以中、低档模具为主。

来源:    发布时间:2019-05-22 10:49:27    点击:

  我国的模具行业起步较晚,20世纪80年代中期以来,我国模具行业产生了很大变化,特别是近十几年,变化可以说是翻天覆地,现在已经成为了世界模具的生产大国。在大多数领域,山东模具已经占领了相当大的份额。但是在高端模具,仍然要从国外大量进口。从模具行业整体而言,我国模具的整体水平仍然是以中低档模具为主。
  China's die and mould industry started relatively late. Since the mid-1980s, great changes have taken place in China's die and mould industry. Especially in the past decade, the changes can be said to be earth-shaking, and now it has become a major producer of die and mould in the world. In most areas, Shandong mold has occupied a considerable share. But in the high-end die, still need to import a large number of foreign countries. From the overall point of view of the die industry, the overall level of China's die industry is still dominated by medium and low-grade die.
  从山东模具厂的发展历史来看,建国以后,我国并没有专业的模具厂,五、六十年代随着汽车厂的建立,逐步建立了附属于主机厂的工具厂,基本都是参照苏联模式建立的大而全的工具厂,随着汽车行业的发展,这些工具厂逐步转为模具厂。
  From the development history of Shandong Mould Factory, after the founding of the People's Republic of China, there was no professional mould factory in our country. With the establishment of automobile factory in the 1950s and 1960s, tool factories attached to main engine factories were gradually established. Basically, they were all large and complete tool factories established according to the Soviet model. With the development of automobile industry, these tool factories gradually turned into mould factories.
  塑胶模具厂
  Plastic Mould Factory
  以我曾经工作过的北汽为例,六十年代叫北汽工具分厂,八十年代成立北京吉普,叫工具车间。主要生产量具、刃具、冲模、锻模、铸造型板芯盒,压铸模、注塑模、橡胶模及各类卡具,90年代末逐步转为冲压模具厂。
  Take Beiqi as an example. In the 1960s, it was called Beiqi Tool Branch. In the 1980s, Beijing Jeep was established, called Tool Workshop. It mainly produces measuring tools, cutting tools, stamping dies, forging dies, casting core boxes, die-casting dies, injection moulds, rubber moulds and various fixtures. It gradually turned into a stamping die factory in the late 1990s.
  90年代以来,民营的模具厂崛起,数控机床的大量引进,CAD、CAE、CAM的逐步实施,模具行业蓬勃发展,我国一跃成为模具制造大国,但这些工厂的生产方式大多还是大而全或小而全,制造的基本都是低端模具,中高端模具很少,大家基本都在低端市场恶性竞争。
  Since the 1990s, private die factories have risen, CNC machine tools have been introduced in large quantities, CAD, CAE and CAM have been implemented step by step, and the die industry has developed vigorously. Our country has become a big country of die manufacturing, but most of these factories are still large and all or small and all of them are manufacturing low-end dies. There are few middle-end and high-end dies, and all of us are in vicious competition in the low-end market.
  是什么阻碍我们做强、做专、做精呢?其中的比较大障碍之一就是我们的大而全或小而全的生产方式,我们的模具生产没有专业化分工或者说专业化分工不充分。
  What hinders us from being strong, professional and refined? One of the biggest obstacles is our large and all or small and all production methods, our mold production is not specialized division of labor or inadequate division of labor.
  目前我国模具制造厂点约30000家,其山东有企业约占5%,合资企业约占10%,民营企业约占85%,从业人员约100万人,年产值2000万元以上的企业约5000家。2015年模具总产值约1700亿元,企业自用模具产值约400亿元,加起来是2100亿,模具人均产值约21万元。根据山东模协统计的2014年82家重点企业资料显示,这些企业2014年模具总产值90亿元,共有员工26800名,人均产值约33.5万元。
  At present, there are about 30,000 die and mould factories in China, with 5% of them in Shandong Province, 10% in joint ventures, 85% in private enterprises, 1 million employees and 5,000 enterprises with annual output value of over 20 million yuan. In 2015, the total output value of moulds is about 170 billion yuan. The output value of self-used moulds of enterprises is about 40 billion yuan, which adds up to 210 billion yuan. The per capita output value of moulds is about 210 million yuan. According to the statistics of 82 key enterprises of Shandong Mould Association in 2014, the total output value of these enterprises in 2014 was 9 billion yuan, with 26800 employees, and the per capita output value was about 335,000 yuan.
                       山东模具
  从模具人均产值比较,日本模具是120万元,美国模具是127万元,德国模具是200万元,也就是说模具人均产值美国、日本是我国的3-5倍,德国是我国的5-9倍。
  Compared with the per capita output value of the mould, the Japanese mould is 1.2 million yuan, the American mould is 1.27 million yuan, and the German mould is 2 million yuan. That is to say, the per capita output value of the mould in the United States and Japan is 3-5 times of that in China, and that in Germany is 5-9 times of that in China.
  人均产值低的原因主要有两点,一是我们生产的绝大多数模具是低端模具,附加值低;二是我们的生产效率低。我们的设备不比他们差,为什么附加值低,效率低呢?一个很重要的原因就是我们不“专”。所谓熟能生巧,“专”能出技术。“专”能出精品,“专”能出效率。人家专业分工好,所以模具质量好效率高。我们是大而不强,广而不专,什么都干,什么都不精,这就造成了我们技术提升慢,质量提升慢,效率提升慢。
  There are two main reasons for the low per capita output value. One is that most of the moulds we produce are low-end moulds with low added value; the other is that our production efficiency is low. Our equipment is not inferior to theirs. Why is the added value low and the efficiency low? A very important reason is that we are not "specialized". Practice makes perfect, and specialty makes technology. "Specialized" can produce high-quality products, and "Specialized" can produce efficiency. They have a good division of labor, so the quality of the mould is good and the efficiency is high. We are big but not strong, broad but not specialized, doing everything and not good at anything, which results in the slow improvement of our technology, quality and efficiency.
  所以模具生产专业化、集约化是模具企业提升技术、提升质量、提升效率,向大而强、专而精转变的必由之路。
  Therefore, specialization and intensive production of die and mould is the only way for die and mould enterprises to improve technology, quality and efficiency, and to transform to large, strong, specialized and precise.
  由现在的大而全,小而全的的模具制造模式,逐步向大而强、专而精转变,形成以大带小、以点带面的专业化、集约化生产模式。即以一个模具中心,带动多个小模具厂和多个工序加工厂,形成大而强、小而专的生产局面,各个中心又有专业侧重,如侧围模具厂、门板模具厂、梁类模具厂等。市场细分的规则有很多,有些会按照不同成型材料来分;也有可能会按照模具类型来分;有些也会按照内板、外板甚至是车身的各总成来进行分类等等。
  From the current large and complete, small and complete mold manufacturing mode, gradually to large and strong, specialized and refined transformation, forming a large and small, point and surface of the specialized and intensive production mode. That is to say, with one die center, many small die factories and processing factories are driven to form a large, strong, small and specialized production situation. Each center also has a professional focus, such as side die factories, door plate die factories, beam die factories and so on. There are many rules for market segmentation, some of which will be classified according to different forming materials, some of which may be classified according to the type of die, and some of which will be classified according to the inner panel, outer panel and even the assembly of the body, etc.
  山东模具的专业化生产之路是漫长的,只要我们坚持走下去,就会看到模具强国的曙光,这是我们几代模具人的梦想!
  Shandong Mold Professional Production Road is long, as long as we stick to it, we will see the dawn of a powerful mould country, which is our dream of several generations of molders!
 
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