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模具热处理中产生缺陷的原因及预防

来源:    发布时间:2019-06-05 17:39:17    点击:

  模具热处理中产生缺陷的原因及预防
  Causes and Prevention of Defects in Die Heat Treatment
  模具外表有软点
  There are soft spots on the exterior of the die
  模具热处置后外表有软点,将影响模具的耐磨性、减少模具的运用寿命。
  There are soft spots on the surface of the die after heat treatment, which will affect the wear resistance of the die and reduce the service life of the die.
  产生缘由:
  Reasons for this:
  模具在热处置前外表有氧化皮、锈斑及部分脱碳。
  Before heat treatment, there are oxide scales, rust spots and partial decarbonization on the surface of the die.
  模具淬火加热后,冷却淬火介质选择不当,淬火介质中杂质过多或老化。
  After quenching and heating of the die, the selection of quenching medium is inappropriate, and the impurities in quenching medium are excessive or aging.
  预防措施:
  Preventive measures:
  模具热处置前应去除氧化皮、锈斑,在淬火加热时恰当维护模具外表,应尽量采用真空电炉、盐浴炉和维护氛围炉中加热。
  The oxide scale and rust spots should be removed before the heat treatment of the die. The appearance of the die should be properly maintained during quenching heating. Vacuum electric furnace, salt bath furnace and maintenance atmosphere furnace should be adopted as far as possible.
  模具淬火加热后冷却时,应选择适宜的冷却介质,对长期运用的冷却介质要经常停止过滤,或定期改换。
  When the die is cooled after quenching and heating, the suitable cooling medium should be selected. The long-term used cooling medium should be stopped filtering or changed regularly.
  模具热处置前组织不佳
  Poor structure of die before heat treatment
  模具然后球化组织粗大不均、球化不完善,组织有网状、带状和链状碳化物,这将使模具在淬火后易产生裂纹,形成模具报废。
  The final spheroidizing structure of the die is uneven and imperfect, and there are network, band and chain carbides in the structure. This will make the die easy to crack after quenching and form the scrap of the die.
  山东模具
  Shandong Mould
  产生缘由:
  Reasons for this:
  模具钢资料原始组织存在严重碳化物偏析。
  Serious carbide segregation exists in the original structure of die steel.
  锻造工艺不佳,如锻造加热温渡过高、变形量小、停锻温度高、锻后冷却速度迟缓等,使锻造组织粗大并有网状、带状及链状碳化物存在,使球化退火时难以消弭。
  Poor forging technology, such as excessive heating temperature, small deformation, high stop forging temperature and slow cooling rate after forging, makes the forging structure coarse and network, ribbon and chain carbides exist, which makes spheroidizing annealing difficult to eliminate.
  球化退火工艺不佳,如退火温渡过高或过低,等温退火时间短等,可形成球化退火组织不均或球化不良。
  Poor spheroidizing annealing process, such as too high or too low annealing temperature and short isothermal annealing time, can result in uneven microstructures or poor spheroidization of spheroidizing annealing.
  预防措施:
  Preventive measures:
  普通应依据模具的工作条件、消费批量及资料自身的强韧化性能,尽量选择质量好的模具钢资料。
  In general, according to the working conditions of the die, the consumption batch and the strength and toughness of the data itself, the die steel materials with good quality should be selected as far as possible.
  改良锻造工艺或采用正火准备热处置,来消弭原资料中网状和链状碳化物及碳化物的不平均性。
  Improvement of forging process or normalizing preparation for heat treatment to eliminate the unevenness of network and chain carbides and carbides in the original data.
  对无法停止锻造的碳化物偏析严重的高碳模具钢可停止固溶细化热处置。
  For high carbon die steels with severe carbide segregation which can not stop forging, solid solution refining and heat treatment can be stopped.
  对锻造后的模坯制定正确的球化退火工艺标准,可采用调质热处置和快速匀细球化退火工。
  The proper standard of spheroidizing annealing process for forged billet can be established by heat treatment with quenching and tempering and rapid homogenizing spheroidizing annealing.
  合理装炉,保证炉内模坯温度的平均性。
  Reasonable charging ensures the average temperature of the billet in the furnace.
  模具产生淬火裂纹
  Quenching Cracks in Dies
  模具在淬火后产生裂纹是模具热处置过程中的比较大缺陷,将使加工好的模具报废,使消费和经济形成很大损失。
                                    山东模具
  Cracks in quenched dies are the biggest defects in the process of heat treatment of dies, which will make the processed dies scrapped and cause great losses in consumption and economy.
  产生的缘由:
  Reasons for this:
  模具资料存在严重的网状碳化物偏析。
  Serious segregation of reticulated carbides exists in die data.
  模具中存在有机械加工或冷塑变形应力。
  There are mechanical processing or cold plastic deformation stresses in the die.
  模具热处置操作不当(加热或冷却过快、淬火冷却介质选择不当、冷却温渡过低、冷却时间过长等)。
  Improper heat treatment operation of die (too fast heating or cooling, improper selection of quenching cooling medium, too low cooling temperature, too long cooling time, etc.).
  模具外形复杂、厚薄不均、带尖角和螺纹孔等,使热应力和组织应力过大。
  The complex shape, uneven thickness, sharp angle and threaded hole of the die make the thermal stress and organizational stress too large.
  模具淬火加热温渡过高产生过热或过烧。
  Overheating or over-burning occurs when the quenching heating temperature of the die is too high.
  模具淬火后回火不及时或回火保温时间缺乏。
  Tempering is not timely after quenching or lack of tempering holding time.
  模具返修淬火加热时,未经中间退火而再次加热淬火。
  When the die is repaired and quenched, it is reheated and quenched again without intermediate annealing.
  模具热处置的,磨削工艺不当。
  The grinding process is improper for the heat treatment of the die.
  模具热处置后电火花加工时,硬化层中存在有高的拉伸应力和显微裂纹。
  There are high tensile stress and micro-cracks in the hardened layer during EDM after thermal treatment of the die.
  预防措施:
  Preventive measures:
  严厉控制模具原资料的内在质量
  Strictly Control the Internal Quality of the Original Materials of Dies and Moulds
  改良锻造和球化退火工艺,消弭网状、带状、链状碳化物,改善球化组织的平均性。、
  Improve forging and spheroidizing annealing process, eliminate network, band and chain carbides, improve the average of spheroidizing structure. ,
  在机械加工后或冷塑变形后的模具应停止去应力退火(>600℃)后再停止加热淬火。
  After mechanical processing or cold plastic deformation, the die should stop stress relief annealing (> 600 C) and then stop heating and quenching.
  对外形复杂的模具应采用石棉梗塞螺纹孔,包扎风险截面和薄壁处,并采用分级淬火或等温淬火。
  Asbestos blocked threaded holes should be used to bind the risky section and thin wall of the complex die, and graded quenching or isothermal quenching should be adopted.
  返修或创新模具时需停止退火或高温回火。
  Annealing or high temperature tempering should be stopped when repairing or innovating dies.
  模具在淬火加热时应采取预热,冷却时采取预冷措施,并选择适宜淬火介质。
  The die should be preheated during quenching and heating, and pre-cooled during cooling, and suitable quenching medium should be selected.
  应严厉控制淬火加热温度和时间,避免模具过热和过烧。
  Temperature and time of quenching heating should be strictly controlled to avoid over-heating and over-burning of dies.
  模具淬火后应及时回火,保温时间要充沛,高合金复杂模具应回火2-3次。
  After quenching, the die should be tempered in time, the holding time should be plentiful, and the high alloy complex die should be tempered 2-3 times.
  Shandong Mould
  选择正确的磨削工艺和适宜的砂轮。
  Choose the right grinding technology and suitable grinding wheel.
  改良模具电火花加工工艺,并停止去应力回火。
  Improve the die EDM process and stop stress relief tempering.
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